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Core Course Overview

Faculty of Modern and Medieval Languages and Linguistics


Core Course Lectures

Core Course Lectures 2020/21 

(Lectures for 2021/22 will be updated in due course; details can change from year to year)​

The course lecture classes offer an overview of central concepts of modern literary/cultural theory. The overview is provided in the form of a series of eight classes running throughout the first term which aims to introduce major conceptual issues and theoretical problems and show how they can be applied to the reading of literary texts, film and broader intellectual and cultural-historical contexts.  Classes will be held weekly and the information is as follows (subject to minor changes):


Questions of Interpretation (Prof Michael Moriarty)

Interpretation has not always been a central aspect of theories of literature: ancient theorists were more interested in literature’s mimetic qualities or its affective and cognitive impact on the reader or spectator. It has, however, always been central aspect of the reading of sacred texts in Judaeo-Christian culture. The lecture traces its migration into literary theory in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, juxtaposing it with alternative methods of study, for instance, positivism, and examines what is at stake in the adoption of an interpretative methodology. It distinguishes those interpretative methodologies that focus on what the text means, from those that focus on what the author meant. Finally, it considers the implications of the emergence of approaches to literature that challenge the pertinence of interpretation.

Initial reading

  • Paul Hamilton, Historicism (London: Routledge, 1996)
  • Roland Barthes, Sur Racine  (Paris: Seuil, 1963)/On Racine, tr. Richard Howard (New York, 1983)
  • ——Critique et vérité  (Paris: Seuil, 1966)/Criticism and Truth, tr. Katrine Pilcher Keuneman, with a foreword by Philip Thody (London, 1987)

​Further reading

  • M. H. Abrams, ‘Orientation of Critical Theories’, in Lodge (ed.), Twentieth-Century Literary Criticism: A Reader, pp. 1-26
  • Aquinas, St Thomas, Summa Theologiae
  • Aristotle, Poetics, in Aristotle, ‘The Poetics’, ‘Longinus’, ‘On the  Sublime’, Demetrius, ‘On Style’, translated by W. Hamilton Fyfe, Loeb Classical Library (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, and London: Heinemann, 1982 [first published 1927])
  • Augustine of Hippo, St, The City of God against the Pagans [De civitate Dei], ed. and trans. George E. McCracken et al., 7 vols, LCL (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press and London: Heinemann, 1957-72)
  • ——De Trinitate
  • Roland Barthes, ‘Les Deux Critiques’, ‘Qu’est-ce que la critique’, in Essais critiques, second edition (Paris: Seuil, 1971: first published Paris: Seuil, 1964)/Critical Essays , tr. Richard Howard (Evanston, Ill., 1972)
  • ——Sur Racine  (Paris: Seuil, 1963)/On Racine, tr. Richard Howard (New York, 1983)
  • ——Critique et vérité  (Paris: Seuil, 1966)/Criticism and Truth, tr. Katrine Pilcher Keuneman, with a foreword by Philip Thody (London, 1987)
  • ——S/Z  (Paris: Seuil, 1970) /S/Z, tr. Richard Miller, with a preface by Richard Howard, Oxford: Blackwell, 1990 [1st publ. in English 1974))
  • Warren Boutcher, The School of Montaigne in Early Modern Europe, 2 vols (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017)
  • Nicholas Boyle, ‘Biblical Hermeneutics: from Kant to Gadamer’, in Nicholas Boyle, Liz Disley, et al. (eds), The Impact of Idealism: the Legacy of Post-Kantian German Thought, 4 vols (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013), IV, pp. 114-41
  • Terence Cave, Thinking with Literature: Towards a Cognitive Criticism (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016)
  • Terence Cave, Karin Kukkonen, and Olivia Smith (eds), Reading Literature Cognitively, Paragraph, 37:1 (March 2014)
  • R. G. Collingwood, An Autobiography [1st publ. 1939], in ‘An Autobiography’ and Other Writings, with Essays on Collingwood’s Life and Work, ed. David Boucher and Teresa Smith (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013)
  • Jacques Derrida, De la grammatologie (Paris: Éditions de Minuit, 1967)/Of Grammatology, trans. Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak, corrected ed. (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1997)
  • ——‘Signature, événement, contexte’, in Marges de la philosophie (Paris: Éditions de Minuit, 1972)/Margins of Philosophy, trans. Alan Bass (Chicago: University of Chicago Press and Brighton: Harvester, 1982)
  • ——Éperons: Les Styles de Nietzsche (Paris: Flammarion, 1978) (bilingual text in Spurs: Nietzsche’s Styles/Éperons: Les Styles de Nietzsche, trans. Barbara Harlow (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1979)
  • William Empson, Seven Types of Ambiguity (London: Pimlico, 2004 [1st publ. 1930])
  • Lucien Febvre, Le Problème de l’incroyance au XVIe siècle: la religion de Rabelais (Paris: Albin Michel, 2003 [1st publ. 1942])
  • Stanley Fish, Is There a Text in This Class? The Authority of Interpretive Communities (Cambridge, MA, and London: Harvard University Press, 1980)
  • Friedrich Engels, see Marx and Engels
  • Michel Foucault, Les Mots et les choses: une archéologie des sciences humaines (Paris: Gallimard, 1966)
  • Rita Felski, Uses of Literature (Malden, MA and Oxford: Blackwell, 2008)
  • ——The Limits of Critique (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2015)
  • Marc Fumaroli, L’Âge de l’éloquence: rhétorique et ‘res literaria’ de la Renaissance au seuil de l’époque classique (Geneva: Droz, 1980)
  • Hans-Georg Gadamer, Truth and Method, 2nd rev. ed., [trans. W. Glen-Doepel], translation revised by Joel Weinsheimer and Donald G. Marshall (London: Sheed & Ward, 1989)
  • Paul Hamilton, Historicism (London: Routledge, 1996)
  • E. D. Hirsch, Jr., Validity in Interpretation (New Haven & London: Yale University Press, 1967)
  • David Lodge, ed., Twentieth-Century Literary Criticism: A Reader (London & New York: Longman, 1972)
  • Ian Maclean, ‘Un dialogue de sourds? Some implications of the Austin—Searle—Derrida Debate’, in Ian Maclachlan (ed.), Jacques Derrida: Critical Thought (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2004), pp.  49-66
  • Karl Marx & Frederick Engels, Selected Correspondence, 2nd edn (Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1965)
  • Franco Moretti, Distant Reading (London: Verso, 2013)
  • Michael Moriarty, Roland Barthes (Cambridge: Polity, 1991)
  • Jacques Rancière, La Parole muette: essai sur les contradictions de la littérature (Paris: Hachette, 1998)
  • Paul Ricœur, De l’interprétation: essai sur Freud (Paris: Éditions du Seuil, 1965)
  • Friedrich Schleiermacher, Hermeneutics and Criticism and Other Writings, ed. and trans. Andrew Bowie (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998)
  • Quentin Skinner, Visions of Politics, 3 vols (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002), vol. 1, Regarding Method
  • Susan Sontag, ‘Against Interpretation’, in Lodge (ed.), Twentieth-Century Literary Criticism: A Reader, pp. 652-60
  • Benedict de [Baruch], Spinoza, Tractatus Theologico-Politicus, in The Chief Works of Benedict de Spinoza, translated from the Latin, with an Introduction by R.H.M. Elwes, 2 vols, vol. 1, Introduction, Tractatus-Theologico-Politicus, Tractatus Politicus. Revised edition (London: George Bell and Sons, 1891) accessed 30/09/2014.
  • Raymond Williams, Keywords: A Vocabulary of Culture and Society, 2nd edn (London: Fontana, 1988 [1st published 1983])
  • W. K. Wimsatt, Jnr and Monroe C. Beardsley, ‘The Intentional Fallacy’, in Lodge (ed.), Twentieth-Century Literary Criticism: A Reader, pp. 334-44


The Spatial Turn (Dr Geoffrey Kantaris)

This class examines the key features of what has been termed the ‘spatial turn’ in the arts and humanities. The term marks a shift from modes of analysis dominated by temporality and historical genealogy towards heightened consideration of the role played by space and place in human society and culture. Within this thinking, which has been advanced by cultural geography, poststructuralist anthropology, and Marxist (urban) theory, to name but a few, spatial forms are not merely the inert backdrop or stage on which grand historical narratives play out, but are also actively constructed by social and economic processes, while spatial forces (such as territorializaiton and deterritorialization, the consolidation and erosion of nation states, mass urbanization and globalization) are themselves powerful social, economic and cultural actors. While Marxism, for example, is often thought of as a grand historical teleology, it turns out that space and place play key roles in Marxist thought, not only as the very ‘terrain’ of capitalist expansion, but also as a materialization and store of surplus value. What happens, then, when these processes are rendered virtual, as we enter the realm of a ‘new’ spatiality, that of cyberspace? These are some of the issues we shall be examining, through an overview of key spatial thinkers such as Henri Lefebvre, David Harvey, Manuel Castells, Doreen Massey, Marc Augé, Michel de Certeau, and Ed Soja.

Pre-seminar reading

  • Henri Lefebvre, “Plan of the Present Work”, The Production of Space (Oxford: Blackwell, 1991 [1974]), pp. 1-67.
  • Edward W. Soja, “Re-Presenting the Spatial Critique of Historicism”, Thirdspace: Journeys to Los Ángeles and Other Real-and-Imagined Places (Oxford: Blackwell, 1996), pp. 164-83.
  • David Harvey, “Time and Space as Sources of Social Power”, The Condition of Postmodernity (Oxford: Blackwell, 1990), pp. 226-39.

Further reading

  • Marc Augé, Non-Places: An Introduction to Supermodernity (London: Verso, 2008 [1992])
  • Certeau, Michel de, The Practice of Everyday Life (Berkeley & Los Ángeles: University of California Press, 1984)
  • Néstor García Canclini, Consumers and Citizens: Globalization and Multicultural Conflicts (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2001 [1995])
  • -------------------, Imagined Globalization (Durham & London: Duke University Press, 2014 [1999])
  • Manuel Castells, The Rise of the Network Society (Oxford: Blackwell, 1996)
  • Derek Gregory, Geographical Imaginations (Oxford: Blackwell, 1994)
  • Elizabeth Grosz, Architecture from the Outside: Essays on Virtual and Real Space (Cambridge MA: MIT, 2001)
  • David Harvey, The Condition of Postmodernity (Oxford: Blackwell, 1990)
  • -------------------, Spaces of Capital: Towards a Critical Geography (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2001)
  • -------------------, Spaces of Hope (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2000)
  • Henri Lefebvre, The Production of Space (Oxford: Blackwell, 1991 [1974])
  • Doreen Massey, Space, Place and Gender (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1994) -------------------, For Space (London: Sage, 2005)
  • Vincent Mosco, The Digital Sublime: Myth, Power, and Cyberspace (Cambridge MA: MIT, 2004)
  • Neil Smith, Uneven Development: Nature, Capital and the Production of Space (Oxford: Blackwell, 1984)
  • Edward W. Soja, Postmodern Geographies: The Reassertion of Space in Critical Social Theory (London: Verso, 1989)
  • -------------------, Thirdspace: Journeys to Los Ángeles and Other Real-and-Imagined Places (Oxford: Blackwell, 1996)
  • -------------------, Postmetropolis: Critical Studies of Cities and Regions (Oxford: Blackwell, 2000) Barney Warf and Santa Arias, eds., The Spatial Turn: Interdisciplinary Perspectives (New York Routledge, 2009)
  • Sophie Watson and Katherine Gibson, eds., Postmodern Cities and Spaces (Oxford: Blackwell, 1995)


Sound Studies (Prof. Nick Hammond)

Sound studies is an interdisciplinary approach combining methods and problematics from music, anthropology, and technology, employing ideas such as the 'soundscape', and studies of aurality and the voice, among others. Common themes explored include the relation or tension between 'natural' sound and industry, the problem of noise, and the impact of technology on sound production and consumption. In this session, the relationship between sight and sound will first be explored as well as certain theories of sound, before we look at the role of Sound Studies within our discipline.

Required reading

  • Connor, Steven, Beyond Words: sobs, hums, stutters and other vocalizations (London: Reaktion Books, 2014), chapter 1
  • Labelle, Brandon, Acoustic Territories: sound culture and everyday life (London: Bloomsbury, 2010), introduction
  • Hammond, Nicholas, The Powers of Sound and Song in Early Modern Paris(Pennsylvania: Penn State University Press, 2019)
  • Hamilton, Tom, and Hammond, Nicholas, eds, SoundscapesEarly Modern French Studiesvol. 41 no. 1 (June 2019)
  • Kay, Sarah, and Noudelmann, François, eds, Soundings and SoundscapesParagraphvol. 41 no, 1 (March 2018)
  • Leighton, Angela, Hearing Things: the work of sound in literature (New Haven: Harvard UP, 2018), chapter 1
  • Nancy, Jean-Luc, À l’écoute (Paris: Galilée, 2002); Listening, translated by Charlotte Mandel (New York: Fordham University Press, 2007)
  • Schafer, Murray, The Soundscape: our sonic environment and the tuning of the world (Rochester: Destiny Books, 1994, first published 1977), introduction


History and Context (Dr Martin Ruehl)

In literary criticism, “history” is often considered the opposite of “theory”. Many scholars in the field take Derrida’s “il n’y a pas d’hors-texte” (“there is no outside-text”) as an injunction to ignore the historical reality in which a work of literature or philosophy was produced and received. History and context, for them, are part of the “transcendental signified” supposedly debunked by (poststructuralist) theory. Even the less theoretically minded frequently treat history as little more than “background” and draw on it selectively, when it suits their interpretive purpose. 

My aim in this lecture is to break down the dichotomies – textual foreground/historical background, close reading/contextual analysis, etc. – that define so much literary and cultural analysis and to make a case for the inevitable, inextricable historicity of literature. I will do so by examining the work of several theorists who have elevated context to “co-text” and highlighted the extent to which the written word is historically situated, mediated, constituted. These theorists have emphasized both the “pastness” and the otherness of seemingly timeless, canonical, universally relevant works. Drawing on Marx as well as Nietzsche, they have explored the ways in which specific material conditions, power relations, and intellectual debates shape the meaning of a text. 

My lecture will address the following questions: What does it mean to read a text historically or “in context”? What particular methods does such a reading require? What conceptions of textuality and historicality inform it? What are the heuristic gains of such an apporach? What are its potential pitfalls, e.g., does it run the risk of reducing complex works of literature or philosophy to the material conditions in which their authors were working, to mere ideological statements, or tokens of the zeitgeist? Does historicization render a text less relevant to the present?

Compulsory reading

  • Dominick LaCapra, “Rethinking Intellectual History and Reading Texts”, History & Theory 19, 3 (1980), pp. 245-276.
  • Lionel Gossman, “History and the Study of Literature”, Profession 94 (1994), pp. 26-33.

Further reading

  • Raymond Williams, Marxism and Literature (1977), Introduction & Section I (“Basic Concepts”), pp.
  • 1-75.
  • Quentin Skinner, “Meaning and Understanding in the History of Ideas”, in Quentin Skinner, Visions of Politics, vol. I: Regarding Method (2002), ch. 4, pp. 57-90.
  • John Toews, “Intellectual History after the linguistic turn: the autonomy of meaning and the irreducibility of experience”, American Historical Review 92 (1987), pp. 879-907.
  • Louis Mink, “History and Fiction as Modes of Comprehension”, in Ralph Cohen (ed.), New Directions in Literary History (1974), pp. 107-124.


Realism (Dr Pierpaolo Antonello)

In this lecture I will provide a historical overview of the concept of mimesis, or imitation, as one of the most crucial notions for the understanding of the function of artistic representation in Western culture, particularly in relation to what we broadly define as ‘realism’ or the ‘realistic mode’. A whole range of issues and questions will be discussed and explored in a historical perspective: from the early, and differently polarized, philosophical theorizations by Plato and Aristotle, to the dialectics between the imitation of the classics in the Medieval/Renaissance period and the emergence of the concept of originality in modernity; from the emancipatory value intrinsic to realistic representations in the modern European novel, to the critique of the mimetic paradigm in postmodern theorization. Further considerations will be given to the contemporary return of an interest in mimesis and imitation due to the discovery of the ‘mirror neurons’ and the emergence of the so-called ‘neuroaesthetics’.

Primary texts

  • Plato, Republic, x, 598a-601e
  • Aristotle’s Poetics, iv-iv
  • G. Genette, ‘Mimesis et diegesis’ in ‘Frontiers du recit’, Figure II (Paris: Seuil, 1969), 52-56.
  • E. Auerbach, Mimesis: The Representation of Reality in Western Literature (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1953), 3-49.
  • G. Lukács, ‘Narrate or Describe?’, in Writer and Critic and Other Essays (London: Merlin Press, 1970), 110-48.
  • R. Barthes, “The Reality Effect”, The Rustle of Language (Oxford: Blackwell, 1986), 141-148.
  • P. De Man, The Resistance to Theory (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1986), 7-11.
  • R. Girard, ‘Mimesis and Violence’; and ‘Triangular Desire’, in The Girard Reader (New York: Crossroad, 1996), 9-19; 33-44.
  • H. Wojciehowski and V. Gallese, ‘How Stories Make Us Feel: Toward an Embodied Narratology’, California Italian Studies, 2(1):

Further reading

  • C. Prendergast, The Order of Mimesis (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986)
  • A. Melberg, Theories of Mimesis (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995)
  • G. Gebauer and C. Wulf, Mimesis: Culture, Art, Society (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995)
  • M. Potolski, Mimesis (London: Routledge, 2006)
  • T. Greene, The Light in Troy: Imitation and Discovery in Renaissance Poetry (New Haven-London:
  • Yale UP, 1982)
  • P. Morris, Realism (London: Routledge, 2003).
  • Peter Brooks, Realist Vision (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2005)
  • B. Nichols, Representing Reality: Issues and Concepts in Documentary (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1991)


Cognitive Approaches to Literature (Dr Charlotte Lee)

The term ‘cognitive approaches’ refers to a relatively new area of literary critical enquiry, which draws inspiration from the cognitive and affective sciences. The lecture class will provide an overview of this rapidly-emerging field, and will consider both the opportunities and the challenges presented by interdisciplinary work. First, we shall examine the formative influences, from the philosophy of Maurice Merleau-Ponty, to the work of George Lakoff and Mark Johnson in cognitive linguistics. We will also seek to differentiate between the various approaches to cognition which co-exist, at times uneasily, in the broader scientific field. In a second step, we will think together about how insights from linguistics, psychology and neuroscience can and have stimulated outstanding literary analysis.

Pre-seminar reading

  • Cave, Terence: Thinking with Literature: Towards a Cognitive Criticism (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016), p. 1-31.
  • Lakoff, George and Johnson, Mark: Metaphors We Live By (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1981), pp. 3-22.
  • Menary, Richard: ‘Introduction to the special issue on 4E cognition’, in Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 9 (2010), 459-63.
  • Merleau-Ponty, Maurice: Phenomenology of Perception (1945), Part Two, ‘The World as Perceived’, chapter 1: ‘Sense Experience’ (any edition).
  • Zunshine, Lisa: ‘Introduction to Cognitive Literary Studies’, in The Oxford Handbook of Cognitive Literary Studies (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015), pp. 1-10.

Further reading

  • Bolens, Guillemette: The Style of Gestures: Embodiment and Cognition in Literary Narrative (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2012).
  • Chesters, Timothy: ‘Social Cognition: A Literary Perspective’, in Paragraph 37.1 (2014), special number: ‘Reading Literature Cognitively’, ed. by Terence Cave, 62-78.
  • Clark, Andy: Supersizing the Mind: Embodiment, Action, and Cognitive Extension (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008).
  • Damasio, Antonio: Emotion, Reason and the Human Brain (London: Vintage, 2006).
  • Lakoff, George and Johnson, Mark: Philosophy in the Flesh: the Embodied Mind and its Challenge to Western Thought (New York: Basic Books, 1999).
  • Lyne, Raphael: Shakespeare, Rhetoric, and Cognition (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011).
  • Malabou, Catherine: Plasticity at the Dusk of Writing: Dialectic, Destruction, Deconstruction, translated with an introduction by Carolyn Shread (New York: Columbia University Press, 2010).
  • Shopin, Pavlo: ‘Metaphorical Conceptualization of Injurious and Injured Language in Herta Müller’, in Modern Language Review 111.4 (2016), 1068-84.


New Materialisms (Dr Joanna Page)

This lecture will introduce major concepts in new materialist thought, outlining what has been termed a “material turn” both in artistic/textual practice and in critical theory, and considering the critical approaches that might be suggested by these. We will explore the contributions of some of the major theorists associated with new materialism (Rosa Braidotti, Karen Barad, Manuel De Landa) and how these may be linked with those working in contiguous fields (Donna Haraway, Bernard Stiegler), tracing the influence of Deleuze in many of these thinkers. A key area of interest here will be the ways in which new materialism engages with scientific theories of chaos and self-organization. In the second half of the lecture, we will work backwards to establish a genealogy of materialist thought, from classical texts (Epicurus and Lucretius in particular) via C17-18 materialist thought in France and Germany to Marx and Benjamin. One of the interactive elements of the lecture will focus in more depth on how new materialist thought might inform critical approaches to literary texts, through the close reading of excerpts from texts by the contemporary Argentine writer Marcelo Cohen.

Pre-seminar reading

  • Braidotti, Rosi. The Posthuman. Cambridge: Polity Press, 2013. Chapter 1: “Post-Humanism:
  • Life Beyond the Self.” 
  • Coole, Diana, and Samantha Frost. “Introducing the New Materialisms.” In New Materialisms: Ontology, Agency, and Politics, edited by Diana Coole and Samantha Frost, 1–43. Durham and London: Duke University Press, 2010.  Available online at:

Further reading

  • Alaimo, Stacy, and Susan Hekman. Material Feminisms. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2008.
  • Barrett, Estelle, and Barbara Bolt, eds. Carnal Knowledge: Towards a “New Materialism” through the Arts. London; New York: I.B. Tauris, 2013.
  • Bellamy Foster, John. Marx’s Ecology: Materialism and Nature. New York: Monthly Review Press, 2000.
  • Bennett, Jane. Vibrant Matter: A Political Ecology of Things. Durham: Duke University Press, 2010.
  • Boscagli, Maurizia. Stuff Theory: Everyday Objects, Radical Materialism. London and New York: Bloomsbury, 2014.
  • Braidotti, Rosi. Metamorphoses: Towards a Materialist Theory of Becoming. Cambridge: Polity Press, 2002.
  • Braidotti, Rosi. The Posthuman. Cambridge: Polity Press, 2013.
  • Coole, Diana, and Samantha Frost, eds. New Materialisms: Ontology, Agency, and Politics.
  • Durham and London: Duke University Press, 2010
  • Howells, Christina, and Gerald Moore, eds. Stiegler and Technics. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2013


The Image: Versions of Separation (Dr John David Rhodes)

In this lecture we will consider the image’s alterity as a mode of separateness or distinctness. The image’s separation has been conceptualised as medium of alienation and untruth, but also as a site of autonomy and anti-instrumentality. The lecture’s emphasis will fall on recent attempts to theorise the image’s ontology as always something other than what we are. Some familiarity with aesthetic theory (particularly Kant’s Critique of the Power of Judgment) would be useful, but is not necessary.

Required reading

  • Mitchell, W.J.T., ‘What do Pictures Really Want?’, October 77 (Summer 1996), pp. 71-82.
  • Nancy, Jean-Luc. “The image—the Distinct.” In Jean-Luc Nancy, The Ground of the Image. Jeff Fort, trans. New York: Fordham University Press, 2005. (pp. 1-14)
  • Rancière, Jacques. ‘The Paradoxes of Political Art’. In Dissensus. Steve Corcoran, ed. and trans.
  • London: Contiuum, 2010. (pp.134-151). 
  • Ricco, John Paul, The Decision Between Us: Art and Ethics in the Time of Scenes. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2014. (pp. 19-47) Background:
  • Plato, The Republic, Benjamin Jowett, trans. (New York: Vintage Classics, 1991).
  • Kant, Immanuel. The Critique of the power of judgment. Paul Guyer and Eric Matthews, trans.
  • Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2000 (1790). (pp. 89-127; pp. 182-87)
  • Theodor Adorno and Max Horkheimer, ‘The Culture Industry: Enlightenment as Mass Deception.’ In
  • Adorno and Horkheimer, Dialectic of Enlightenment. John Cumming, trans. New York: Continuum, 1996 (1944). (pp. 120-167)
  • Bazin, “The Ontology of the Photographic Image.” In Bazin, What is Cinema?. Volume I. Hugh Gray, ed. and trans. 9-16. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1967. (pp. 9-16)
  • Guy Debord, The Society of the Spectacle, Donald Nicholson-Smith, trans. New York: Zone Books, 1995 (originally published 1967). (Chapter I, ‘Separation Perfected’, pp. 12-24)
  • Cavell, Stanley. The World Viewed. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1979. (pp.10-25; 118-133)
  • ‘Visual Culture Questionnaire’, October 77 (Summer, 1996), pp. 25-70.
  • Jacques Rancière, The Politics of Aesthetics, Gabriel Rockhill, trans. (London: Continuum, 2004


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