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Faculty of Modern and Medieval Languages and Linguistics


Presenting your bibliography

If you are using the standard MHRA footnote referencing system, your bibliography should conform to the style set out below. If you are using an online referencing tool, it will automatically generate a list of works cited for you with a single click, and this will result in a far more accurate and polished version.

  • Include in your bibliography only those works which are cited in your dissertation. However, you may if you wish present two lists, the first with the title ‘Works Cited’ and the second ‘Other Works Consulted’. These are the only two sub-sections permitted for your bibliography. Otherwise, everything should be included in a single list, including primary texts. It is acceptable to produce a separate ‘Filmography’ if you wish.
  • All works should be listed alphabetically, using the surname of the author/editor. If a book has more than one author or editor, you should respect the position of the names given in the book itself.
  • Use a ‘hanging indent’ for your bibliography.


Adhere to the conventions below in listing different kinds of text, observing the correct formatting of titles and use of punctuation.

For a book:

Stam, Robert, Film Theory: An Introduction (Oxford: Blackwell, 2000)


For a book where you have not used the first edition:

King, John, Magical Reels: A History of Cinema in Latin America, 2nd edn (London: Verso, 2000)


For a translated book:

​Baudrillard, Jean, The Mirror of Production, trans. by Mark Poster (St Louis: Telos Press, 1975)


For an edited volume of essays:

Aizenberg, Edna, ed., Borges and His Successors: The Borgesian Impact on Literature and the Arts (Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1990)


For a chapter in an edited volume:

Balsamo, Anne, ‘Reading Cyborgs Writing Feminism’, in Cybersexualities: A Reader on Feminist Theory, Cyborgs and Cyberspace, ed. by Jenny Wolmark (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1999), pp. 146-56

Here the page numbers given are the first and last page of the chapter or essay.


For an article in a journal:

Hühn, Peter, ‘The Detective as Reader: Narrativity and Reading Concepts in Detective Fiction’, in Modern Fiction Studies, 33.3 (Autumn 1987), pp. 451-66

Here ‘33’ refers to the volume number and ‘3’ to the issue number, while the page numbers given are the first and last page of the article.


For a book with more than one volume:

Martin, Michael T., ed., New Latin American Cinema (Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1997), 2 vols


For an essay in a book with more than one volume:

Solanas, Fernando and Octavio Getino, ‘Towards a Third Cinema: Notes and Experiences for the Development of a Cinema of Liberation in the Third World’, in New Latin American Cinema, ed. by Michael T. Martin (Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1997), I, pp. 33-58


For an article on the internet:

Chanan, Michael, ‘Latin American Cinema in the 90s: Representational Space in Recent Latin American Cinema,’ in Estudios interdisciplinarios de América Latina y el Caribe, 9.1 (Jan-June 1999), <> [accessed 9 August 2010]

As far as possible, give the same information in the same order as for a printed journal article, and then add the URL. If the article is not part of an online journal, it may not be possible to give the full range of details (volume number, title of journal, etc.), but at the very least your reference should include the author, title of article, URL and date accessed.


For a film:

Lang, Fritz, Metropolis, prod. by Tawd Beckman et al. (Universum Film, Germany, 1926)

Include the producer and distributor if possible (this information is sometimes difficult to access).


Listing more than one work by an author

If your bibliography includes more than one work by the same author, substitute the repeated author’s name with a long dash and put the works in date order.

Foucault, Michel. 1984. ‘Truth and Power.’ […]

—— 1990. ‘The Concern for Truth.’ [...]


Listing more than one work published in the same year by the same author

If you are listing more than one text published by the same author in the same year, you simply add the letter ‘a’ to the date for the first title (in alphabetical order) and ‘b’ to the date of the second, e.g. ‘2003a’, ‘2003b’.