skip to content


Faculty of Modern and Medieval Languages and Linguistics


Inserting footnote markers

  • Use your wordprocessor’s footnote function, which will automatically renumber footnotes if you make changes.
  • The footnote marker should always be placed at the end of the point/citation to which the foonote refers, after the punctuation mark (except for a dash), and preferably right at the end of the sentence:

In her essay ‘Gender Studies’, Catherine Davies states that ‘Gender refers to the social and symbolic relations of perceived sexual differences’.1

  • An exception to this rule would be if the footnote only relates to the first part of the sentence, and you want to show that the second half moves on to a different idea.

In her analysis of the representation of violence in twentieth-century art, Bernárdez Sanchis draws attention to the deformation and distortion of the private parts of the body and the blurred boundaries between private and public spaces;1 all of these characteristics are abundantly evident in Alonso’s art.

Here, placing the footnote marker after the semi-colon mid-way through the sentence tells the reader that the first part of the sentence is a summary of the critic’s idea, while the second is the dissertation writer’s own idea.