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Faculty of Modern and Medieval Languages and Linguistics


Formatting footnotes

  • All footnotes should end with a full stop, even if they are not full sentences.
  • Give the basic information about a text only in a footnote: just enough to ensure that the reader can find it easily in your bibliography. You should include the author’s name, the title of the work, and the page number, all separated by commas:

1 Nelly Richard, La insubordinación de los signos, p. 45.


  • A reference should not repeat information which is already clear in the text. For example, if it is obvious which author you are referring to, the footnote should just give the title of the work and the page number.

As Shumway argues, nineteenth-century intellectuals and statesmen had to invent ‘guiding fictions’ in order to justify their vision for Argentina.1


1 The Invention of Argentina, p. 2.


  • If a title of a work is particularly long, you should give it in full the first time, but thereafter you may give a shorter version. For example, Recodings: Art, Spectacle, Cultural Politics could be shortened to Recodings in the second and subsequent footnotes.
  • If the next footnote references the same text as the one before it, use ‘Ibid., p. 45’ if you are referring to a different page number of the same text, and simply ‘Ibid.’ if you are referring to the same page number of the same text.
  • Even better, if it is obvious which text you are referring to, you need only put the page number in brackets in the main body of your dissertation. This is preferable to repeated uses of ‘Ibid.’
  • If you are citing more than once from the same page number of the same text within the same paragraph, you may use just one reference for all of the citations to avoid repetition. However, you should not do this if there is any possibility of ambiguity.
  • Do not use ‘Op. cit.’ as this can lead to confusions.